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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 30-36

Role of trace mineral in periodontal health: a review

Department of Periodontics, Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai, India

Correspondence Address:
Adiya Apon
Department of Periodontics, Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2542-3975.260960

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Periodontal diseases are microbial induced chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by infiltration of leukocytes, loss of connective tissue, alveolar bone resorption, and formation of periodontal pockets. In response to periodontal pathogens, leukocytes elaborate destructive oxidants, proteinases and other factors. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alteration of the micronutrient levels such as zinc, selenium, iron and copper. The imbalance of the micronutrient levels leads to increased susceptibility to oxidative damage of tissues. These micronutrients play a role in both health and disease. The vitality of the periodontal tissues in both health and disease depends on the adequate source of essential nutrients being available to the host. Micronutrients are imperative for optimum host response. Populations worldwide are prone to their insufficiency due to lifestyle changes or poor nutritional intake. Balanced levels of these trace minerals such as iron, zinc, selenium and copper are essential to prevent progression of chronic conditions like periodontitis. Their excess as well as deficiency is detrimental to periodontal health. Selenium, zinc and copper are integral components of antioxidant enzymes and prevent reactive oxygen species induced destruction of tissues. Their deficiency can worsen periodontitis associated with systemic conditions like diabetes mellitus. This review focused on the role of micronutrients, namely, iron, zinc, selenium and copper in periodontal health and their association with chronic periodontitis.

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